Tulipa ‘Yellow Crown’ (Golden Yellow) - Coronet Group Tulips
Tulipa ‘Yellow Crown’ (Golden Yellow) - Coronet Group Tulips

Tulip Types or Cultivar Groups of the Plant

The article Tulip Types or Cultivar Groups of the Plant aims to make known to the lovers of the plant, and possibly to the scholars, how the Tulips are categorized – in a way the National Product of the Netherlands – from a Horticultural point of view.

For this reason, it is followed (up to a point, of course) the official grouping of the International Cultivar Registration Authority for genera Tulipa, which bears the purely Dutch acronyms ICRA or KAVB (Royal General Bulb Growers’Association).

This article also aims to entertain the readers by engaging them in the group adventures of Tulip species, cultivars and varieties, which – let’s not keep it for later – fall into 15 categories, which eventually became 16, but unofficially reach 18, by the time these lines are written.

In other words, it could be said here that the article is aimed at the with knowledge laughing, or in totally other words the (dual) end justifies the means.

Single Early Group (SE)

Tulip Types or Cultivar Groups - Single Early Group (SE) - Tulips Division
Single Early Group (SE) - Tulips Division

Basic Elements

Height: 15-45 cm (6-18 in)

Minimum Temperatures: (−37 / −34 °C) – (−35/−30 °F, USDA Hardines Zone 3b)

Flowering Period: Early, Mid

Typical Colors: Yellow, Pink, Purple, Red, White, Orange, Bicolor

Floriculture Life: Few years

Essential Features: Compact habit, typical Tulip flower

Ancestor: Tulipa gesneriana

Description

From the oldest grouped varieties, it is generally believed that they came from a selection of the tallest seedlings of the even older group of tulips Duc van Tol.

This older group probably owes its name to Adriaen Duyck, Lord of the Oudkarspel – a small village in present-day northern Holland.

And without wishing to enter into the family of this noble man, we will only mention here that around 1550 CE he entered into a marriage with the rather equally noble Aleid van Tol, after whom he became widely known as Duke van Tol.

So the varieties of the Single Early group include, together with those of Duke van Tol, Tulip plants with leaves from 10 to 35 cm (4-14 in) long and have a single flower, about 8 cm (3 in) in diameter. The shape of the flowers is cup-shaped, while they are carried on a high-strength flower stem.

The color is uniform or varied with stripes, spots or flecks, from a second and usually visually opposite color. Plants bloom mostly early – but they are not the earliest of all Tulips. Some varieties bloom in the middle of the flowering period.

Also worth mentioning is the fact that numerous varieties of the group are fragrant.

Use

The smaller plants of the group utilized by planting in pots, containers and planters. Larger growths are suitable for flower beds, mixed borders, and rock gardens.

Regardless of the size, group Tulips can be planted in areas exposed to the wind. Also, the bulbs of all varieties of Single Early are offered for forcing.

Tulip Types or Cultivar Groups of the Plant

Double Early Group (DE)

Double Early Group (DE) - Tulips Division
Double Early Group (DE) - Tulips Division

Basic Elements

Height: 25-38 cm (10-15 in)

Minimum Temperatures: (−37 / −34 °C) – (−35/−30 °F, USDA Hardines Zone 3b)

Flowering Period: Early, Mid

Typical Colors: Pink, White, Yellow, Orange, Red, Purple, Bicolor

Floriculture Life: Annual

Essential Features: Double flowers, similar to Peony

Ancestor: Tulipa gesneriana

Description

The fully double Tulips first appeared in 1665 CE. Then Antoine Vallot, a botanist, director of the Paris Royal Garden (Jardins du Roi) and physician to Louis XIV, described in the Hortus Regius catalog (The Royal Garden) the Tulipa lutea centifolia, also known as the "Double Yellow Monster"- reference to the more than 200 tepals that formed its flower.

From the distant 1665 to the present day, the Double Early group acquired a number of varieties, whose plants consist of leaves 10 to 35 cm (4-14 in) long, and of course double bowl-shaped flowers, whose diameter reaches about 8 cm (3 in).

The color is uniform or varied with stripes or spots, from a second one. The plants bloom mostly early, however several varieties bloom in the middle of the flowering period.

Use

The Tulips of the group utilized by planting in pots and containers. They are also used in flower beds and rock gardens, while they are among the best for cut flowers, since its flowers last a long time.

Tulip Types or Cultivar Groups of the Plant

Triumph Group (T)

Tulip Types or Cultivar Groups - Triumph Group (T) - Tulips Division
Triumph Group (T) - Tulips Division

Basic Elements

Height: 25-38 cm (10-15 in)

Minimum Temperatures: (−37/ −34 °C) – (−35/−30 °F, USDA Hardines Zone 3b)

Flowering Period: Mid

Typical Colors: Purple, Yellow, Red, Pink, White, Orange, Bicolor

Floriculture Life: Few years

Essential Features: Excellent cut flowers, great resistance to adverse weather conditions

Ancestor: Tulipa gesneriana

Description

The first Triumph Tulips emerged in 1915, from seedlings selected after crossing between Single Early varieties and some of the Old Darwin Group – now included in the Single Late Tulips.

These are plants that consist of leaves 10 to 35 cm (4-14 in) long, and single, mainly typical cup-shaped flowers, about 6 cm (2 in) in diameter.

They are offered in a wide variety of colors, which either appear as a single or in two colors, with the second color forming stripes or flecks, being visually opposite to the first.

Most varieties bloom in the middle of the flowering period, while some of them are late flowering.

Triumph form one of the most numerous Tulip groups.

Use

Triumph Tulips are suitable for planting in beds. They are also used as cut flowers, while they can also be utilized for forcing.

Tulip Types or Cultivar Groups of the Plant

Darwin Hybrid Group (DH)

Tulip Types - Darwin Hybrid Group (DH) - Tulips Division
Darwin Hybrid Group (DH) - Tulips Division

Basic Elements

Height: 45-70 cm (18-28 in)

Minimum Temperatures: (−37/ −34 °C) – (−35/−30 °F, USDA Hardines Zone 3b)

Flowering Period: Mid-Late

Typical Colors: Orange, Yellow, Pink, Red, White, Bicolor

Floriculture Life: Perennial

Essential Features: Traditional habit, with large flowers

Ancestor: Tulipa gesneriana

Description

In 1936 the Dutch producer and hybridist D. W. Lefeber had the great idea of crossing Tulipa fosteriana ‘Madame Lefeber’ (or ‘Red Emperor’ as it is also known) with a variety of the old Darwin group. The result was very successful, paving the way for the creation of Tulips of the new Darwin Hybrid group.

The plants of this group have upright leaves 10 to 35 cm (4-14 in) long, and single oval-shaped flowers, whose diameter reaches 8 cm (3 in). The flowers are placed on sturdy flowering stems, while flowering takes place mid-late.

The flowers have a wide range of shades and are sometimes bicolor, with the second color, which is usually visually opposite to the first, creating stripes, spots or flecks on the tepals.

All varieties of the Darwin Hybrid group are floriculturally true perennials, having the ability to bloom with high quality flowers for up to 4 years.

Use

Darwin Hybrid Tulips are suitable for planting in beds and borders, while they are also used as cut flowers, due to the extended duration of the flowers.

However, it is recommended to avoid planting them in areas where during the flowering season of the plants prevail stormy weather conditions.

Single Late Group (SL)

Single Late Group (SL) - Tulips Division
Single Late Group (SL) - Tulips Division

Basic Elements

Height: 50-75 cm (20-30 in)

Minimum Temperatures: (−37/ −34 °C) – (−35/−30 °F, USDA Hardines Zone 3b)

Flowering Period: Late

Typical Colors: Orange, Yellow, White, Red, Pink, Purple, Bicolor

Floriculture Life: Annual, Several years

Essential Features: Tallest of all Tulips

Ancestor: Tulipa gesneriana

Description

The Single Late group originated in 1981 from the union of the older separate groups Darwin and Cottage – the Cottage dates back to the late 19th century CE.

These are tall plants – more precisely the tallest of all the Tulips – that have leaves 10 to 35 cm (4-14 in) long, and single flowers of cup- or goblet shape, about 8 cm (3 in) in diameter.

They are grown on strong stems, usually one per plant, but varieties with more than one stalk are not missing – although they are now included in the unofficial Multiflowering Group, which will be discussed below.

Single Late is late flowering, with remarkable resistance to heat, and sometimes its varieties are called May-Flowering Tulips.

The group includes plants with pastels but also intense shades of flowers, some of which are even bicolor. Varieties include the famous purple-black ‘Queen of Night’, the closest to the black Tulip flower.

In terms of floriculture, their lifespan is annual, but there are several varieties, mainly of the old Cottage group, which produce high quality flowers for several years.

Use

Single Late Tulips utilized by planting in flower beds, while as cut flowers, they decorate the vases for a long time.

Tulip Types or Cultivar Groups of the Plant

Lily-Flowered Group (L)

Tulip Types or Cultivar Groups - Lily-Flowered Group (L) - Tulips Division
Lily-Flowered Group (L) - Tulips Division

Basic Elements

Height: 45-65 cm (18-26 in)

Minimum Temperatures: (−37/ −34 °C) – (−35/−30 °F, USDA Hardines Zone 3b)

Flowering Period: Late

Typical Colors: Purple, Yellow, Orange, White, Pink, Red, Bicolor

Floriculture Life: Annual

Essential Features: Tall, elegant habit plants, with tepals ending in pointed apex

Ancestor: Tulipa gesneriana

Description

The Lily-Flowered group was created in 1958. The first variety of the group resulting from the crossing of Tulipa gesneriana (syn. T. retroflexa) with someone of the old group Cottage. Since then other varieties have followed, which came mainly from crosses between plants of the old Darwin and Cottage groups.

Lily-Flowered has leaves 10 to 40 cm long (4-16 in), and particularly impressive flowers, similar to those of Lilium. They are single flowers, about 8 cm (3 in) in diameter, whose tepals bend from the middle to the outside, ending at pointed ends.

Some of them have uniform intense or soft shades, while others are bicolor, with colors visually opposite to each other. The flowers are placed on rather weak flower stems, and bloom mostly late.

Numerous varieties of the group are also fragrant.

Use

Lily-Flowered Tulips utilized by planting in formal style beds, while as cut flowers, they decorate the vases for a long time.

Due to the fact that the flowers are placed on weak flower stems, it is not recommended to plant them in wind-affected areas.

Tulip Types or Cultivar Groups of the Plant

Τουλίπες με Πορτοκαλί, Μωβ, Πορφυρά και Κίτρινα Άνθη - Από Jovanel

Where, When and How

to Plant Tulip Bulbs

Fringed Group (Fr)

Tulip Types - Fringed Group (Fr) - Tulips Division
Fringed Group (Fr) - Tulips Division

Basic Elements

Height: 45-60 cm (18-24 in)

Minimum Temperatures: (−37/ −34 °C) – (−35/−30 °F, USDA Hardines Zone 3b)

Flowering Period: Late

Typical Colors: White, Pink, Purple, Yellow, Orange, Red, Bicolor

Floriculture Life: Annual

Essential Features: Single or double flowers with fringed margins approximately in the upper half of the tepals

Ancestor: Tulipa gesneriana

Description

The fact that the Fringed Tulips group is unique is reflected not only in its elegant blossom but also in its taxonomic adventures: it was not until 1981 that the Fringed Tulips acquired their own entity as a group, having previously successive been part of the Parrot, Darwin and Single Late groups, because they are essentially mutations of varieties of these groups.

The group is composed of plants with leaves 10 to 40 cm (4-16 in) long, and really unique single or double flowers, about 8 cm (3 in) in diameter, and cup-shaped, with about the upper half of the periphery having a fringed appearance.

The colors of the flowers are mainly uniform, soft or intense, with the special feature that in the fringed margins the tones usually appear lighter – softer.

The varieties of the group are late season flowering.

Use

The Fringed Group Tulips utilized by planting in beds and borders, while as cut flowers, they decorate the vases for satisfactory time.

Tulip Types or Cultivar Groups of the Plant

Viridiflora Group (V)

Viridiflora Group (V) - Tulips Division
Viridiflora Group (V) - Tulips Division

Basic Elements

Height: 38-50 cm (15-20 in)

Minimum Temperatures: (−37/ −34 °C) – (−35/−30 °F, USDA Hardines Zone 3b)

Flowering Period: Late

Typical Colors: Bicolor Green with White, Pink, Red

Floriculture Life: Annual

Essential Features: On the tepals, mainly from the base to the top, the green color appears

Ancestor: Tulipa gesneriana

Description

1981 was not only a historic year for the Fringed Tulips but also for Viridiflora. At that time they also acquired a status as a separate group, which was formed by the continuous crosses of Tulipa viridiflora with other varieties.

The plants of the group varieties have leaves 10 to 40 (4-16 in) cm long, and original single, in general cup-shaped flowers, about 8 cm (3 in) in diameter, in which it coexists with the basic and the green color.

In fact, when the flowers begin to open, they are almost all green on the surface of their tepals. Then the basic color appears, and the green remains as a stripe or spot in the central area of the tepals, and from the base to most often the top.

The varieties of the group are late season flowering.

Use

Lily-Flowered Tulips utilized by planting in beds and bordures, while as cut flowers, they decorate the vases for a long time- up to about 20 days.

Tulip Types or Cultivar Groups of the Plant

Rembrandt Group (R)

Rembrandt Group (R) - Tulips Division
Rembrandt Group (R) - Tulips Division

Basic Elements

Height: 50-70 cm (20-24 in)

Minimum Temperatures: (−37/ −34 °C) – (−35/−30 °F, USDA Hardines Zone 3b)

Flowering Period: Various

Typical Colors: Bicolor with White, Violet, Red, Yellow, Purple

Floriculture Life: Annual

Essential Features: The tepals show colored areas like flames or brush strokes

Ancestor: Tulipa gesneriana

Description

Rembrandt Tulips are listed more for historical than practical reasons, as they are not on the market due to the fact that they are infected with the Tulip Breaking Virus (TBV). Despite its name, it infects not only tulips but also other bulbous plants.

Those that offered comercially as Rembrandt belong to other groups, whose extremely beautiful color combinations and designs on the flower – reminiscent of feathers or flames of the second color on the first – are similar to those caused by the transmitted mainly by aphids virus.

The original Rembrandt is still cultivated only in historical collections or for research purposes.

Use

Rembrandt Tulips utilized by planting in flower beds and mixed borders.

Tulip Types or Cultivar Groups of the Plant

Parrot Group (P)

Tulip Types - Parrot Group (P) - Tulips Division
Parrot Group (P) - Tulips Division

Basic Elements

Height: 35-50 cm (14-20 in)

Minimum Temperatures: (−34 / −32 °C) – (−30/−25 °F, USDA Hardines Zone 4a)

Flowering Period: Late

Typical Colors: Bicolor, Red, Purple, Yellow, Pink, Orange

Floriculture Life: Annual

Essential Features: Large impressive flowers, most bicolor, with fringed or pleated tepals

Ancestor: Tulipa gesneriana

Description

Having back 4 centuries of cultivation, since they started to be produced already in the 17th century CE, the Tulips of the Parrot group, have large flowers of exotic beauty. Characteristic of the flowers is the twisting or rotation, or the cutting of the tepals in their margins.

The plants have leaves 10 to 35 cm (4-14 in) long, and single cup-shaped flowers, up to 10 cm (4 in) in diameter. The colors are uniform with soft or intense shades, while they are often two-tone with amazing designs of the second color on the first. Many varieties have a green color at the base of their tepals, which appears as a spot.

The plants of the Parrot group are of late flowering period.

Use

The Parrot Tulips utilized by planting in flower beds and borders. They are also used as cut flowers, creating a strong visual impression.

Because the plants are sensitive to adverse weather conditions, it is recommended to plant them in well-protected garden locations.

Tulip Types or Cultivar Groups of the Plant

A Spectacular Tulip Flower of Parrot Group of the Plant
A Spectacular Tulip Flower of Parrot Group of the Plant

Double Late Group (DL)

Double Late Group (DL) - Tulips Division
Double Late Group (DL) - Tulips Division

Basic Elements

Height: 45-60 cm (18-24 in)

Minimum Temperatures: (−37/ −34 °C) – (−35/−30 °F, USDA Hardines Zone 3b)

Flowering Period: Late

Typical Colors: Bicolor, Pink, Purple, Red, Yellow, White, Orange

Floriculture Life: Few years

Essential Features: Double flowers, similar to Peony

Ancestor: Tulipa gesneriana

Description

The first description of Tulip plants of the Double Late group was made at the end of the 17th century CE. The Tulips of the team are taller than those of Double Early.

They consist of plants with leaves 10 to 40 cm (4-16 in) long, and flowers fully double that resemble those of Peony. The shape of the flowers is flattened cup, they have a more compact shape than those of Double Early, while their diameter reaches 12 cm (5 in).

The colors are uniform, soft or intense, and double, with the second color often forming streaks or spots like fire, or appearing only on the margins of the feet.

The varieties of the Double Late group bloom late, while numerous of them are fragrant.

Use

The Double Late Tulips utilized by planting in flower beds and borders. They are also used as cut flowers, lasting in vases for a long time.

Because the flowers are sensitive to rain and strong wind, it is recommended to plant them in well-protected garden locations.

Tulip Types or Cultivar Groups of the Plant

Kaufmanniana Group (K)

Kaufmanniana Group (K) - Tulips Division
Kaufmanniana Group (K) - Tulips Division

Basic Elements

Height: 15-25 cm (6-10 in)

Minimum Temperatures: (−42 / −40 °C) – (−45/−40 °F, USDA Hardines Zone 2b)

Flowering Period: Early

Typical Colors: Red, Yellow

Floriculture Life: Perennial

Essential Features: Small habit

Ancestor: Tulipa kaufmanniana

Description

Around the end of the 19th century CE, the species Tulipa kaufmanniana was included in the cultivated Tulips. The species Tulipa greigii soon followed, and from the crosses between them emerged new varieties. All of these new varieties with T. kaufmanniana characteristics were included in the new Kaufmanniana Tulip group.

Plants of this variety have leaves 8 to 25 cm (3-10 in) long, which are sometimes green, but often their color varies with reddish, purple or bronze shades in stripes or spots – a feature that reveals the effect of T. greigii in their creation.

The single flowers are funnel-shaped, however when fully opened they become star-shaped and look like water lilies (hence the unofficial name of the group Waterlily Tulips). The diameter of the flowers varies between 8 and 10 cm (3-4 in), and they have single or double colors, usually intense.

The varieties of the Kaufmanniana group are generally low, including some of the earliest flowering Tulips. They are also real floricultural perennial plants, which show normal flowering for more than 5 years.

Use

The Kaufmanniana Tulips utilized by planting in rock gardens, borders, pots and containers.

Tulip Types or Cultivar Groups of the Plant

Fosteriana Group (F)

Tulip Types - Fosteriana Group (F) - Tulips Division
Fosteriana Group (F) - Tulips Division

Basic Elements

Height: 25-45 cm (10-18 in)

Minimum Temperatures: (−37/ −34 °C) – (−35/−30 °F, USDA Hardines Zone 3b)

Flowering Period: Early-Mid

Typical Colors: Red, White, Yellow, Pink, Orange

Floriculture Life: Perennial

Essential Features: Large single flowers, leaves sometimes with stripes or mottles, tepals rounded at the apex

Ancestor: Tulipa fosteriana

Description

At the beginning of the 20th century CE, the species Tulipa fosteriana was included in the cultivated Tulips. Participating in the creation of other new varieties with large flowers, such as Darwin Hybrids, formed its own group Fosteriana, with varieties that are essentially variations of the species, but contributing to the spectacular increase in the colors offered by its flowers.

The plants of the group have leaves 5 to 30 cm (2-12 in) long, which are sometimes light or dark green, while some varieties have reddish or purple shades in stripes.

The single flowers, 12 cm (5 in) in diameter,have the shape of a flattened cup, and are usually of intense color shades, which when doubled, the second shade appears as spots or stripes of opposite optically colors.

The varieties of the Fosteriana group are of mid-late flowering, and from floriculture point of view really perennial, with normal flowering up to 4 years, while some of them are additionally fragrant.

Use

The Fosteriana Tulips utilized by planting in beds, borders, pots and containers.

Tulip Types or Cultivar Groups of the Plant

Greigii Group (F)

Greigii Group (F) - Tulips Division
Greigii Group (F) - Tulips Division

Basic Elements

Height: 30-40 cm (12-16 in)

Minimum Temperatures: (−37/ −34 °C) – (−35/−30 °F, USDA Hardines Zone 3b)

Flowering Period: Early

Typical Colors: Red, White, Yellow, Orange

Floriculture Life: Perennial

Essential Features: Large single flowers, leaves sometimes with purple or maroon streaks

Ancestor: Tulipa greigii

Description

The Greigii group includes hybrids derived mainly from crosses in which Tulipa greigii participated.

The plants of the group have broad wavy leaves, 5 to 18 cm (2-7 in) long, blue-green in color and dotted with spots and streaks of blue-brown hues.

The flowers, up to 10 cm (4 in) in diameter, are single and have the shape of a flattened cup. When the flowers are fully open, the 3 inner tepals appear more upright than the 3 outer ones, which in fact curve slightly downwards.

They have simple to two-tone shades, with the second color appearing in spots or streaks, usually of the contrast visual impression.

Some varieties bear two to four flowers per flower stem, while most plants in the Greigii group bloom early. Floriculturally are perennial plants, which normally bloom for more than 5 years.

Use

The Greigii Tulips utilized by planting in rock gardens, borders, pots and containers.

Tulip Types or Cultivar Groups of the Plant

Species or Botanical Group

Species or Botanical Group - Tulips Division
Species or Botanical Group - Tulips Division

Basic Elements

Height: 10-25 cm (4-10 in)

Minimum Temperatures: (−42 / −40 °C) – (−45/−40 °F, USDA Hardines Zone 2b)

Flowering Period: Early

Typical Colors: Red, Yellow, Pink, Orange

Floriculture Life: Perennial

Essential Features: The smallest growth tulips

Ancestors: Various

Description

The group Species (or Botanical) includes authentic botanical species, as well as cultivars or hybrids that have similar characteristics to those of the species.

These are generally very low growth plants, with relatively small flowers, but with a huge range of colors, and many of them still have attractive visually striped leaves.

The plants of the Species group are of early flowering, while floriculturally they are really perennial.

Use

The Species Tulips utilized by planting in rock gardens, borders, pots and containers.

Tulip Types or Cultivar Groups of the Plant

Coronet Group

Tulip Types or Cultivar Groups - Coronet Group - Tulips Division
Coronet Group - Tulips Division

Basic Elements

Height: 30-60 cm (12-23 in)

Minimum Temperatures: (−37/ −34 °C) – (−35/−30 °F, USDA Hardines Zone 3b)

Flowering Period: Early, Mid, Late

Typical Colors: White, Yellow, Red, Purple, Bi-Color

Floriculture Life: Annual, Perennial

Essential Features: Upright, wavy tepals, bent outwards

Ancestors: Various

Description

The Coronet group is the newest of all the Tulip groups, since it was created only in 2018 CE, initially including only the ‘Crown of Negrita’ cultivar.

Of course, the history of the group goes back to 1949 CE, when the creator of ‘Picture’, G. Baltus, registered and presented for the first time a cultivar of Tulip, the shape of the flower of which did not match any other.

Indeed, this flower had compressed tepals that formed a spout at its tip – a shape that resembled a crown. And about 70 years later, thanks to this unique feature of the flower, which was also possessed by the ‘Crown of Negrita’, the new Tulipa Coronet group was born.

The group includes medium to large plants, which bloom in different phases of the flowering period, with a uniform soft or intense color, but there are also bicolor flowers, with freckls or stripes on the margins of the tepals.

Most varieties of the Coronet group are floriculturally annuals, however there are some perennials.

Use

The Coronet Tulips utilized by planting in beds, borders, pots and containers.

Tulip Types or Cultivar Groups of the Plant

Multiflowering Group

Description

The unofficial Multiflowering Group was created to include varieties and cultivars, whose stems bear many flowers. Most of these varieties and cultivars are officially classified as either Tulips Single Late Group or Greigii Group.

Plants of this variety develop a central stem, which branches into 2 to 6 secondary, bearing a total of 3 to 7 flowers. The flower of the central stem is slightly larger than the others.

Tulip Types or Cultivar Groups of the Plant

Miscellaneous Group

Description

The unofficial Miscellaneous Group was created to include those species and varieties that do not match any other group.

Most of the varieties do not have special aesthetic value, unlike the species, which include all the wild Tulip plants, which have a special charm.

Tulip Types or Cultivar Groups of the Plant

References

The References in the short article with the Dutchizing title Tulip Types or Cultivar Groups of the Plant are presented by the Dutch folk band Rapalje with their song Wat Zullen We Drinken, which is an adaptation of the old Breton Son ar Chistr, in Celtic style.

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