Medium Sized Potato Tubers
Medium Sized Potato Tubers

Potato - 1. Composition, Quality Characteristics & Nutrition Facts of Potatoes

The potato originates from the highlands of the Andes of South America. Given this, and using a brave literary depth jump, it could be said here that the carbohydrates in the potato – which are the first part of the tribute to the composition, the quality characteristics and the nutritional value of its tubers – are in some sense not only the carriers, e.g. starch, but also the carriers of the Latin American spirit.

Thus, having fully coordinated with the above-mentioned literary jump, one could reasonably assume that in every molecule of the potato carbohydrates, there is also a little of the high poetry of Nicanor Parra and César Vallejo, something of the dark narrative world of Borges and a satisfactory dose of magic realism of the maître of the genre, Gabriel García Márquez.

And surely someone else could add that just as reading the creations of these great writers nourishes the spirit with invaluable quality food, so the consumption of potatoes nourishes the body with comparable high quality food.

But a third party could add that since the relationship between literature and the potato will concern us in a future tribute, we are content for the time being, only in highlighting the relationship and value of theof potatoes to human nutrition.

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By the dragging of censor the awe-inspiring Apocalypse shall come

The Andean Peaks

Potato tubers, if properly produced and stored, contain high quality starch.

Potato Tubers with Plants
Potato Tubers with Plants
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Potato Carbohydrates

Carbohydrate in the potato tuber constitutes about 75% of the total dry matter. The predominant form of carbohydrate in potato is starch. Starch of the tuber, which, like all plants, serves as a reserve of energy, is distinguished in temporary and permanent. Permanent starch is found in potato tuber, which is a mixture of a linear polysaccharide, amylose and a branched, amylopectin.

Amylose is about 21.9 to 42.7% (mean of 31.2% ) of starch, whereas amylopectin can reach up to 57.3 -78.1% of total starch, and their proportional relationship may schematically attributed as 1: 3.

Potato – Composition, Quality Characteristics & Nutrition Facts of Potatoes

Potato carbohydrates - Potato Variety ' Elba ' of White Flesh
Potato Variety ' Elba ' of White Flesh

Amylose Versus Amylopectin and the Phosphorylation

We will not particularly insist on this point for the two polysaccharides if the proportional relationship between amylose and amylopectin and the degree of phosphorylation (ie the processes in which much of the energy involved in the food is retained and attributed to the organism) does not were two of the main quality characteristics of potato tubers.

Amylose

It is an indisputable fact that the more amylose contained in the tuber is so qualitatively superior. The reason is that amylose is considered a resistant (resistant starch) or slow-acting form of starch, providing similar health benefits to fermentable fibers.

Amylose is not degraded in the small intestine and therefore reaches the large intestine substantially intact. There it is extensively kneaded by the microflora, resulting in pH reduction as well as the growth of beneficial colon bacteria, acting as a probiotic.

From another point of view, potato tubers starch – but generally starch – containing high levels of amylose has also been observed to reduce oil penetration and is therefore widely used in snack foods to decrease consumer fat intake of the products.

Phosphorylation

Regarding phosphorylation,, covalently bound phosphorus in potato starch is at higher levels (0.08%) than in other starchy plants (e.g., 0.02% in corn), which is of major importance for physicochemical properties of starch and thus its quality.

Potato – Composition, Quality Characteristics & Nutrition Facts of Potatoes

Potato carbohydrates - Red Potato Skin and Flesh 'All Blue' Variety
Red Potato Skin and Flesh 'All Blue' Variety
Πρωτεΐνες της Πατάτας - Πατάτα Κόκκινη, Πορφυρή, Λευκή

Potato Part 2

Potato Protein

Θρεπτικά Συστατικά της Πατάτας - Πατάτες Λεπτόφλουδες στον Πάγκο

Potato Part 3

Lipids & Dietary Fiber

Starch in Relation to Potato in the Field & Storage

Potato carbohydrate content is directly related to the genetic background of the cultivated variety, its way of cultivation, and especially for starch, tuber storage conditions greatly affect its quality.

Potato tubers stored at temperatures around 4 ° C are lower in quality as they relate to the degradation of the starch and sweetening.

Generally speaking, cultivated potatoes have an average of 11.0-30.4% starch versus fresh weight (mean of 18.8%), while late potato varieties, which have a much higher yield of tubers, produce more starch compared to early potato cultivation.

Sucrose is the largest disaccharide of potatoes, whereas glucose and fructose are the main monosaccharides.

Potato – Composition, Quality Characteristics & Nutrition Facts of Potatoes

Potato with Tubers and Part of the Roots
Potato with Tubers and Part of the Roots

References

The References of the starchy article entitled Potato – 1. Composition, Quality Characteristics & Nutrition Facts of Potatoes are presented by the Bolivian quintet Rumillajta with the song Tempestad.

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  1. Camire, M. E., Kubow, S., & Donnelly, D. J. (2009). Potatoes and Potatoes and Human Health. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition49(10), 823-840.
  2. De Swert, L. F., Cadot, P., & Ceuppens, J. L. (2007). Diagnosis and Natural Course of Allergy to Cooked Potatoes In Children. Allergy62(7), 750-757.
  3. Higgins, J. A. (2004). Resistant Starch: Metabolic Effects and Potential Health Benefits. Journal of AOAC INTERNATIONAL87(3), 761-768.
  4. McGill, C. R., Kurilich, A. C., & Davignon, J. (2013). The Role of Potatoes and Potato Components in Cardiometabolic Health: A Review. Annals of Medicine45(7), 467-473.
  5. Phillips, B., Hughes, J., Phillips, J., Walters, D., Anderson, D., & Tahourdin, C. (1996). A Study of the Toxic Hazard that Might Be Associated With The Consumption of Green Potato Tops. Food and Chemical Toxicology34(5), 439-448.
  6. Woolfe, J. A., Poats, S. V., & Woolfe, W. J. (1987). The Potato in the Human Diet. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Nutrient Composition of the Potato: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

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