Pomegranate Planting - The Fruits of Punica Granatum
The Fruits of Punica Granatum

Pomegranate Planting Instructions & Guidelines

The Pomegranate planting introduces the commercial grower of the tree in the adventure of developing a productive orchard, in which will spend almost three decades of his life.

Therefore, knowledge of modern methods and the correct ways of planting and installing seedlings in the new Pomegranate orchard is for him self-evidently more than important.

And despite the fact of the lack of sufficient scientific documentation for many aspects of the cultivation of the tree, as the Pomegranate planting , there does not seem to be a huge or large differences in theoretical views and practices.

Therefore, the future commercial Pomegranate grower may proceed with the reading of this article with a few reservations, the most important of which will probably be that this work is also signed by the well-known editorial team of "Kalliergeia".

Pomegranate trees that grow under bedding system of plantation.

Pomegranate Trees (Punica Granatum) in an Orchard
Pomegranate Trees (Punica Granatum) in an Orchard
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Appropriate Season for the Pomegranate Planting

To a large extent, the appropriate time for the Pomegranate planting is determined by the climatic factors of the area of the future commercial orchard (and especially by the temperatures), as well as from the type of young trees.

Climatic Factors

In general it could be said that in the areas that are characterized as warm the Pomegranate planting can be carried out immediately after the fall of the leaves of plants, at the beginning of Winter.

In colder areas, however, it is recommended that planted the young trees of Pomegranate at the end of winter, within a time window of 15 to 20 days before the start of vegetation, and of course if there is not a risk of frost.

The Young Trees Type

Pomegranate young trees type is related to whether they are bare-root or with root ball (ie in Plant Grow Bags), as well as the method of asexual propagation selected for their reproduction.

Thus, those Pomegranate plants that come from hardwood cuttings (leafless) and are bare-rooted, are recommended to be planted immediately after the fall of the leaves, in late autumn to early winter, or alternatively, late winter to early spring – if the risk of frost has passed.

For the plants of Pomegranate derived from semi-hardwood or softwood cuttings and marketed with root ball, it is recommended to plant them in the spring, or from the middle up to the end of the autumn.

Pomegranate Planting Instructions & Guidelines

Pomegranate Planting - Pomegranate Trees with Y-Shape Support
Pomegranate Trees with Y-Shape Support

Orchard Preparation Prior to the Pomegranate Planting

Before the Pomegranate planting it is necessary to precede in the future commercial orchard some works that relate to the soil treatment and infrastructure. These include:

  • Creation of a plant windbreak up to 2 to 3 years before the establishment of the orchard from the side of any prevailing strong wind
  • Land preparation and mark out planting positions
  • Installation of a subsurface drip irrigation system (if this method of watering the trees of Pomegranate has been selected)
  • Installation of a permanent tree support system

Pomegranate Planting Instructions & Guidelines

Soil Preparation of the Orchard for Pomegranate Planting

The preparation of the soil of the orchard for Pomegranate planting consists in the creation of the most suitable soil conditions for the growth of the trees.

And since the Pomegranate plantation can last up to 25 years, it is easy to see that proper soil preparation is one of the factors in maintaining the productivity of the Rhodone at high levels.

A good practice is the preparation of the soil to start at least 4 to 5 months before the planting of the young Pomegranate trees.

Deep Plowing or Deep Ripping

The deep plowing up to 1 m is not recommended unless the soil profile advocates such a thing due to the existence of compact subsoil layer or due to the compression of the soil by the passage of heavy agricultural machinery.

But even then it is preferable to operate with a ripper to a depth of up 1 m to break the impermeable layer, since with this work the soil is not disturbed – so that the barren soil rises to the surface.

Ploughing, Milling and Disking

If the soil is not sandy one to two deep plowing, are carried out when it is mellow, in order to improve its structure. The same goes for removing any residue from previous crops.

Follow normal depth plowing, and disking (if they are heavy soils) or milling.

In the last disking or milling, the integration of well-digested manure together with the pre-plant fertilization.

The recommended quantities for the manure may vary between 10 to 20 tons per hectare, while for the pre-plant fertilization indicative refers the addition and integration 20 to 25 kg of elemental (pure) Phosphorus and 60 to 65 of elemental (pure) Potassium per hectare, respectively.

This means that, for example, if the Single Superphosphate (0-20-0) is selected for Phosphorus administration, then an amount of approximately 250 kg / ha of fertilizer should be given, while in If for Potassium administrationPotassium Sulphate (0-0-50) is selected, then about 150 kg / ha of fertilizer should be given.

Pomegranate Planting Instructions & Guidelines

The Bedding System of Plantation

With the exception of the light textured sandy, gravely and rocky soils, the predominant technique for all the other, is by the creation of raising beds, and the planting of Pomegranate trees there.

With this technique – among others – is achieved:

  • The stable and adequate air circulation of the roots
  • The protection of the collar and roots of soil borne diseases
  • The draining of excess water

Pomegranate Planting Instructions & Guidelines

Pomegranate Planting in Pits or Trenches

In the past, digging pits for planting fruit trees in commercial orchards was one way. Today, however, the practice of planting in trenches is increasingly being followed.

Which method is better?

The answer will come by a promising but doubtful future article, as the systematic reader of the systematically inconsistent "Kalliergeia" knows very well.

Pits Digging

Once the places for planting the pomegranate have been marked, the pits are opened. The pits are recommended to have dimensions of 60 cm in diameter and as much depth, while in those soils which have excellent drainage, the depth and the diameter of the pits, should be 30 cm.

They are dug more than 1 month before planting, so that the soil can be natural disinfected by the intense solar radiation.

In the event that bare-rooted Pomegranate trees are to be planted, the size of the pits should not exceed the size of the root system of the plants.

In gravelly or rocky soils, tthe pits that have been dug will be filled with a fertile soil mixture, which will contain sand, loam and clayey soil in the ratio of 1: 1: 1.

Trenches Digging

The diigging of the trenches is carried out on wide raised beds. The beds are recommended to be 2 m wide and 45 cm high from the ground, while the planting ditches are recommended to be 60 cm wide and 30 cm deep.

Pomegranate Planting Instructions & Guidelines

Mature Fruits of Punica Granatum with Excellent Color
Mature Fruits of Punica Granatum with Excellent Color

Pomegranate Planting

When the infrastructure in the future Pomegranate commercial orchard have been implemented, the necessary preparations have been completed, and the season is suitable, then the Pomegranate planting takes place.

General Recommendations for the Pomegranate Planting

During the planting of the young trees care is taken to ensure that these will be placed in a pit, the topsoil will cover its lowest part and the deeper the higher.

In the pits or the trenches is not added neither fertilizer nor organic matter – manure or compost. However, it is beneficial for the faster establishment and best development of Pomegranate young trees and, in particular, of bare roots, the application of preparations containing  Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM).

It is recommended that the amounts of Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza preparations per plant be between 140 and 160 g.

Immediately after the planting following abundant watering.

Recommendations for the Pomegranate Planting in India

In India, for the planting of Pomegranate young trees, followed a slightly differentiated method. Thus, after first applying two banned for use in the European Union pesticides (with the highly toxic active substances Carbendazim and Chlorpyrifos) it is recommended as added to the soil a mixture that will cover the pit up to the first 30 to 50 cm, by the following manures and bio-fertilizers:

  • FYM 15 kg
  • Vermicompost 2 kg
  • Neem Cake 1,5 kg
  • Trichoderma 25 g
  • Phosphate Solubilising Bacteria 25 g
  • Azotobacter 25 g
  • Pseudomonas fluorescens 25 g
  • Azospirillium 25 g

What exactly is each of them is presented immediately below.

FYM

FYM (Farmyard manure) is called the digested, well-decomposed manure.

Vermicompost

The Vermicompost is fine-grained compost that is produced by the action of earthworms on plant debris.

Neem Cake

The Neem Cake, is the organic by-product remaining after the extraction of the oil from the fruits and seeds of the plant Azadirachta indica.

Trichoderma

The Trichoderma is a genus of fungi, whose various species (Trichoderma asperellum, Trichoderma atroviride, etc.) are used in various forms of preparations, as a biological fungicide against soil phytopathogenic fungi.

Phosphate Solubilising Bacteria

Phosphate Solubilising Bacteria (PSB) are bio-fertilizers made up of beneficial bacterial strains that act on insoluble phosphorus compounds and dissolve it, allowing the element to be converted into forms assimilable by plants.

Azotobacter & Azospirillium

The Azotobacter and Azospirillium are also two genus of bacteria, where the species of the former coexist at the roots of the plants, and the latter live freely on the ground. The beneficial effect consists in the binding of atmospheric Nitrogen and convert to ammonia (NH3). In this form Nitrogen can be obtained directly by the plants. It is worth mentioning here that what has been estimated that species of the genus Azotobacter, contribute from 20 to 40 kg of Nitrogen per hectare and year.

Pseudomonas fluorescens

The Pseudomonas fluorescens is a bacterium whose strains develop plant protection properties against pathogenic fungi, such as those belonging to the genera Fusarium and Pythium, as well as against certain species of nematodes.

Pomegranate Planting Instructions & Guidelines

Staking the Newly-Planted Pomegranate Trees

If it has not been selected and, of course, preceded the installation of a permanent support system, immediately after the Pomegranate planting, the support of the newly planted trees will follow, using various materials.

The support is necessary so that the young plants not endangered primarily by the destructive action of strong winds. Also, with the support of the Pomegranates will be able to grow vertically, which will allow the trees to evenly distribute the weights of the limbs and branches.

The supports can be wooden pallisades, poles or even bamboo canes of large diameter with a height ranging from 0.75 to 1 m above the ground. In the case of selected large-diameter pallisades or poles, they drive into the ground at an angle, so as not to damage the root system of young plants.

The supports are placed on the side of the prevailing wind or the northern, to protect the Pomegranates from the cold and freeze. The saplings are tied in 2 or 3 places and in such a way that their slight oscillation is allowed.

Pomegranate Planting Instructions & Guidelines

References

The References of the article bearing the groundbreaking title Pomegranate Planting Instructions & Guidelines, are presented by the legendary R. L. Burnside with with his inspired song Rollin’ & Tumblin’.

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  1. Ashton, R. W. (2006). The Incredible Pomegranate: Plant and Fruit. Tempe, AZ: Third Millennium Publishing.
  2. Cuevas, A. (2018). Pomegranate Production and Marketing. Scitus Academics LLC.
  3. Hiwale, S. S. (2009). The Pomegranate. New India Publishing.
  4. Kahramanoglu, I., & Usanmaz, S. (2016). Pomegranate Production and Marketing. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
  5. Levin, G. M. (2006). Pomegranate Roads: A Soviet Botanist’s Exile from Eden(1st ed.). Floreant Pr.
  6. Marathe, R. A., Sharma, J., Babu, K. D., & Murkute, A. A. (2017). Bedding system: A unique plantation method of pomegranate in arid and semi-arid region. National Academy Science Letters, 40(4), 249-251.
  7. Singh, S., & Choudhary, M. (2012). Production Technology of Fruit Crops in Wasteland. Scientific Publishers.

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