Growing Globe Artichokes in Vegetable Garden
Growing globe Artichokes in vegetable garden is an excellent choice for any amateur gardener.
Because by growing globe Artichokes (ie Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus (L.) Fiori) he/she will not only be able to harvest fresh flower heads for many years and for many delicious dishes, but he/she will also have the possibility by leaf extracts of the plant to make effective medicines – medicines to treat liver, digestive and biliary dysfunctions.
And if he/she does not want to make drugs from the leaves, then he/she can give the leaves to the domestic animals he breeds, since they are a wonderful animal feed.
Finally, If he/she does not want neither the fresh flower heads, then there is no reason to go to growing globe Artichokes in his vegetable garden.
Climate and Soil
Climate: Growing globe Artichokes in vegetable garden for many years takes place successfully in those areas of the temperate zone characterized by mild and cool winters and where no sudden temperature changes are observed throughout the year.
The minimum temperature tolerance of the plant is -3 to -5 °C. However, it is advisable not to plant globe Artichokes where the temperature falls below 1 to 0 °C, as no Artichokes should be growing when the vegetable garden to be planted is in a position exposed to frost.
A particularly favorable climatic factor for the successful cultivation of globe Artichoke in the vegetable garden is increased atmospheric humidity.
Soil: The soil of the vegetable garden can be of medium texture or heavy. That is, both clay and loamy soils are suitable for the globe artichoke growing but in any case, they must have excellent drainage as well as be fertile.
Soil pH: Appropriate soil pH for growing globe Artichokes in vegetable garden is between 6 and 8. Optimum ranges between 6 and 6.9.
Globe Artichoke Propagation
Globe Artichoke is propagated mainly asexual, with Pups (offshoots) and Ovoli (dormant or semidormant underground axillary buds). Seed propagation of the plant is rare and is used mainly for the establishment of new varieties.
Sowing: The sowing of the globe Artichoke takes place from February to March in a hotbeds. The temperature for germination of seeds ranges between 21 and 26 °C. With these temperatures seedlings appear within 8 to 12 days. It is also possible to sow in cold frames during the months of April to May.
Pups: The use of offshoots is the most common way to propagate globe Artichoke. However, this presupposes the existence of parent plants from a previous cultivation of globe Artichoke in the vegetable garden or other Artichoke crops to which the amateur grower has access. Pups are taken in the warmest areas from September to October until March in the colder ones. Generally, the length of the artichoke pups ranges between 25 and 40 cm and must have 4 to 6 leaves. After pups planting follows 10 to 15 cm (4 to 6 in) hilling.
Ovoli: Dormant buds removed from the rhizome during the period of plant rest. Each rhizome piece consists of an underground offshoot which have at least two very well-developed buds. They are obtained from the parent plants July through August and layered in wet sand until they are ready for transplantation.
Globe Artichoke Fertilization in Vegetable Garden
Organic matter: For the growing globe Artichokes in vegetable garden successfully, the addition of organic matter is essential. The organic matter may take the form of well-prepared and disinfected manure or compost. The recommended amount generally ranges from 400 to 500 kg per 100 m2 of vegetable garden.
Adding fertilizers: Whether in the soil preparation phase or in an already established globe Artichoke plants in the vegetable garden, the fertilizer amounts for basic fertilization are about the same. Indicatively, per 100 m2 of vegetable garden are administered in the autumn 0.5-1 kg of calcium ammonium nitrate (26-0-0), 4-6 kg of superphosphate (0-20-0), and 1-2 kg of potassium sulphate (0- 0-50).
For the same area, 0.5-1 kg of calcium ammonium nitrate (26-0-0) are administered by side dressing in March and so in April.
Globe Artichoke Irrigation
Globe Artichoke from the beginning to the end of the growing period requires systematic watering. The grower should bear in mind that about 100 m2 of vegetable garden requires about 25 to 40 m3 of water per year, while the best watering method is the drip irrigation.
Globe Artichoke Planting in Vegetable Garden
Soil preparation: To growing globe Artichokes in vegetable garden for many years (3 to 5 up 7 years) requires very good soil preparation. Initially, deep plowing takes place up to 50 to 60 cm and at the same time incorporating the organic matter. It follows normal plowing, where the basic fertilization is incorporated and then 1 to 2 tillings until finally the planting holes are opened.
Planting distances and planting: Globe Artichoke’s planting distances depend, amongst other things, on whether the variety to be installed is thorny or not. Generally, it could be said that thorny globe Artichokes needs more room to spread. Therefore, for these varieties it is recommended that the planting distances be 0,80 m on the rows and 1,60 to 1,80 m between the rows, while for the globe Artichokes varieties without thorns the distances are 0,70 to 0,80 m on the rows and 1.40 to 1.60 m between the rows.
Planting takes place either in spring or autumn.
Tilling and cultivating: As long as there is the possibility of using mechanical means, two or three tillings are made between the rows together with cultivating or hoeing on the rows. Otherwise, the amateur gardener save money for the gym, doing all the work by hand.
Fall plant care: In the last autumn cultivating, all the stems cut to the ground except 3 to 4 – the strongest per plant.
Overwintering Globe Artichoke Plants
Covering plants by soil: If the cultivation of globe Artichoke in the vegetable garden occurs in areas where winter temperatures are approaching its inferior tolerance limits, after the last fall cultivating, the plants are soil covered to protect them. This technique requires to cover the plants with a layer of soil of 10 to 15 cm, and after that, the addition of another layer of 10 to 20 cm of organic mulches, such as straw or wood chips.
Plants storage: In areas where winter temperatures are prohibitive for the professional cultivation of globe Artichoke, the amateur gardener can grow the plant in his vegetable garden. But what he/she needs to do is, approaching the winter, to dig up the globe Artichokes and store them in sheltered places, putting them in moist river sand or peat. The following spring, he can divide the plants and replant them.
PVC tunnels: In the same areas, plant protection can be done using the double tunnel method. Initially, a layer of organic material 10 cm thick is left around the plants. Then the first, lower tunnel is constructed, covered with frost protective fabric. Finally, the higer tunnel, which contains the lower and is covered with a transparent PVC thick greenhouse plastic sheet, is constructed. In case that snow covers the tunnel need to remove if it gets too heavy.
Plant Protection of Globe Artichoke
Although in general the growing globe Artichokes in vegetable garden, being small scale, does not usually present serious problems, however, phytoparasites are not lacking.
- Aphis fabae-solanella –Black bean aphid
- Anuraphis cardui (syn. Brachycaudus cardui) – Plum-thistle aphid
- Brachycaudus helichrysi – Leaf curl plum aphid
- Cassida palestina – Cassida
- Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa – European mole cricket
- Pyrameis cardui – Painted lady (or Cosmopolitan)
- Platyptilia carduidactyla – Artichoke plume moth
- Sphaeroderma rubidium – Leaf beetle
- Agromyza andalusiaca – Fly
- Helicoverpa armigera – Cotton bollworm
- Agriotes spp. – Beetles
- Tetranychus urticae – Red spider mite
- Meloidogyne spp. – Root-knot nematode
- Platylenchus penetrans – Northern root-lesion nematode
Snails & Slugs
- Helix sp. – Snails
- Limax sp. – Slugs
- Apodemus sp. – Field mice
- Microtus sp. – Meadow mice
- Rattus sp. – Rats
- Erwinia chrysanthemi – Bacterial wilt
- Xanthomonas cynarae – Bacterial bract spot of artichoke
Ascochyta hortorum – Fruit spot of artichoke
Botrytis cineria – Grey mould (Botrytis bunch rot)
- Bremia lactucae – Downy mildew
- Pythium spp. – Pythium
- Ramularia cynarae – Artichoke leaf spot
- Sclerotinia minor – Sclerotinia disease of lettuce
Corticium rolfsii – Collar rot
- Erysiphe cichoracearum – Powdery mildew of cucurbits
- Leveillula taurica – Powdery mildew
- Sphaerotheca fulinginea – Powdery mildew
- Verticillium dahliae – Verticillium wilt
- Verticillium albo-atrum – Verticillium wilt
- Rosellinia necatrix – Root rot
- Sclerotiutn rolfsii – Sclerotiutn
- Sclerotinia scleritium – White mold
- Phizoctonia solani – Rhizooctonia
- AARSV – Artichoke Aegean ringspot virus
- AILV – Artichoke Italian latent virus
- AMCV – Artichoke mottled crinkle virus
- AYRV – Artichoke yellow ringspot virus
Rotation and Companions Globe Artichoke Plants
Crop rotation: At the end of growing globe Artichokes in vegetable garden the amateur gardener will replant Artichokes after 2 to 3 years. In place of Globe Artichokes can be planted potatoes.
Combined cropping: Artichoke companions plants are lettuce, green onions and radishes.
Recipe of Artichokes à la Polita
After the hard work of the amateur gardener for growing globe Artichokes in vegetable garden, the harvest time comes. He/she goes up to the garden and with decisive moves cuts 8 fresh Artichoke flower heads. He/she intends to cook the Artichokes à la Polita – that is, the way they cooked this particular food in Constantinople, Istanbul, ‘Polis’, both Greeks and the Turks. And he/she is willing to share the recipe (but not the food) with the always patient and full of understanding reader of ‘Kalliergeia’.
Ingredients of Artichokes à la Polita
The ingredients listed by the amateur gardener have calculated them to produce 4 dishes of normal stomach capacity. He/she has also figured out that the preparation time is about 30 minutes and the cooking time another 30 minutes.
Ingredients for 4 servings:
- 8 fresh artichokes
- 1 cup of oil
- 1 medium onion grated
- 4 fresh onions in pieces
- 2 large carrots cut in rings
- 3 large potatoes cut into quarters
- 100gr. frozen peas (optional)
- ½ cup of thinly chopped dill
- 1 egg
- 1 cup of lemon juice
- Salt – pepper
Cooking Artichokes à la Polita
Having all the ingredients in front of him, the amateur gardener – henceforth called the Cook – unfolds his great culinary talent.
- He/she cleans the fresh Artichokes so that leave the heart-shaped part only, cutting and removing all the fuzz and leaves from the center.
- Grates them with lemon and put them to soak in water with a little flour and lemon juice, to prevent them from browning – not from the sun.
- In a wide and shallow saucepan, he puts the oil and and leave it to fry at a high temperature until it burns.
- Puts the onion and the fresh onions and sizzle them slowly.
- Adding the carrots and sauté for a while.
- Puts the Artichokes and the potatoes, in the casserole, and throws in the peas, the dill, salt, pepper and a cup of hot water.
- Covers the pot and slowly boil the food until the artichokes and the potatoes soften up and be left with a little sauce, approximately for 30 minute – knowing that if necessary can add some water.
- Having finally boiled the food, it turns off the fire and immediately after that he mixes the egg with the lemon juice, pours in some of the foods’ sauce and then pour it all together in the empty pan.
- He/she is shaking it with grace in a way so that the eggnog goes everywhere.
- After all that, the Artichokes à la Polita adventure arrives at the end.
References - The Cook, the Poet and A Vindication
Cook tastes and the result satisfies him. Now the food is ready for serving, the wine is waiting and the vegetable garden is full of bliss – as the great Chinese poet of the Middle Ages Li Po could say, vindication the effort, the work, but most of all the wine. Wine is also mentioned in his poem A Vindication.
- Allahdadi, M., Raei, Y., Bahreininejad, B., Taghizadeh, A., & Narimani, S. (2016). Effect of Chemical and Biological Fertilizers on Quantitative and Qualitative Yield of Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.). Biological Forum, 8(1), 500-508.
- LIM, T. K. (2016). Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants: Flowers. Springer.
- Mouratoglou, C., & Carré, A. (2018). Mazi: Modern Greek food.
- Χα, Ι., & Πετρόπουλος, Σ. (2014). Γενική Λαχανοκομία και Υπαίθρια Καλλιέργεια Λαχανικών [Principles of Vegetable Production and Field Cultivation of Vegetables]. Βόλος: Πανεπιστημιακές Εκδόσεις Θεσσαλίας.
Globe Artichoke: Encyclopedia of Life
The recipe can be from Istanbul-polis but the music is from Izmir: Tunisian Dhafer Youssef at a concert given to Ahmed Adnan Saygun Arts Center there.
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