The Similar to Smoke Flowering of European Smoketree
European Smoketree Flowering

European Smoketree (Cotinus coggygria)

Cotinus, apart from a branch of the wild olive tree – which was the prize for the winner at the ancient Olympic Games – is a plant, the European Smoketree, that is obviously not a wild olive tree. More precisely, the European Smoketree, which is obviously not a wild olive tree, is the Cotinus coggygria.

And what is as plant Cotinus coggygria? It is a small deciduous tree or shrub that is grow wild and adaptable to a variety of soil-climate environments.

Among other uses, its use as an ornamental plant, especially its numerous varieties, is remarkable. Like its flowering is remarkable: it looks like smoke clouds coming out of the plant, reminiscent of a foolish smoker in a staggering poker hand …. Poker hand ?

Let’s see what other deliriant word mark will be devised by the editorial team of ‘Kalliergeia’ in order to write a decent introduction.

If all the participants succeed, they will be crowned with a branch of Cotinus.

CONTENTS

European Smoketree, Part of the Plant - © Robert Vidéki, Doronicum Kft., Bugwood.org
European Smoketree, Part of the Plant - © Robert Vidéki, Doronicum Kft., Bugwood.org
European Smoketree Natural Geographic Range

European Smoketree (Cotinus coggygria)

European Smoketree, The leaves of the plant - © Robert Vidéki, Doronicum Kft., Bugwood.org
European Smoketree, The leaves of the plant - © Robert Vidéki, Doronicum Kft., Bugwood.org
European Smoketree Flowering Plant - © Dow Gardens, Bugwood.org
European Smoketree Flower Plant - © Dow Gardens , Dow Gardens, Bugwood.org
European Smoketree - The Leaves of Cotinus coggygria With a Section of the Flower
The leaves of Cotinus coggygria with a section of the Flower

European Smoketree (Cotinus coggygria) - Brief Description

Scientific name

Cotinus coggygria Scop. (syn. Rhus cotinus L.)

Common name

European Smoketree, Smoketree, Smoke Bush, Smoke Tree, Eurasian Smoketree

 

General characteristics

Type of foliage: Deciduous

Form: Upright shrub or small tree, with multiple stems and round-symmetrical canopy

Texture: Medium

Height: 5-8 m (16-26 ft)

Diameter: 5-8 m (16-26 ft)

Growth rate: Slow

Flowering period: May to July

Fruiting period: August to October

 

Shape and colours

Bark: Light grey

Leaves shape: Oval-obovate

Foliage colour: Green

Foliage colour in autumn: Red, orange, yelllow

Flowers shape: Panicle inflorescence

Flowers colour: Yellowish

Fruit: Brown drupaceous

 

Plantation

Soil type: Exellent draining, sand, clay, loam, acidic to alkaline

Exposure: Sun

Soil pH: 6-8

Watering: Medium

Hardiness: −26 °C (-15 °F – USDA Hardiness zone 5b)

 

Uses

Specimen, hedges, mixed hedges

European Smoketree (Cotinus coggygria)

Cotinus coggygria Shrub - © T. Davis Sydnor, The Ohio State University, Bugwood.org
Cotinus coggygria Shrub - © T. Davis Sydnor, The Ohio State University, Bugwood.org

European Smoketree (Cotinus coggygria) - General Notes

  1. The name of the genus Cotinus is the Latin rendition of the ancient Greek word κότινος which means ‘wild olive tree’. This word was used by Pliny the Elder to baptize a bush in the Apennine Mountains, from which the Romans exported a red dye. The name of the coggygria species does not fall short in red, since it also comes from the ancient Greek word κοκκυγέα, which means the ‘a tree that serves as a red dye’. The term is referred to by Theophrastus, probably describing the plant.
  2. European Smoketree is a native small tree or shrub that is found in two large areas of the Eurasian zone, one in Southeast Europe and one in the Asia. It is naturally found mainly on dry slopes, on rocky and gravely areas in forest clearings – frequently on south-facing limestone soils – and at altitudes up to 800 to 1300 m.
  3. The plant grows in diverse soils, from light sandy to heavy clayey, but they must drain well because it does not tolerate wet soils and places that catch water. However, it thrives in medium texture limestone clay soils, which is moderate fertility.
  4. European Smoketree has bisexual or unisexual flowers and the blooming gives a special aesthetic value to the plant. At the end of spring, its small yellowish flowers formsa 20-30 cm long thinned and ramified panicle. The characteristics of the long filamentous stalk of the flowers, which give the impression of a smoke cloud, justifying the english common name of the plant, acquire successively violet, red and brown-gray color, presenting a special spectacle.

European Smoketree (Cotinus coggygria)

European Smoketree Flowering - © John Ruter, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org
European Smoketree Flowering - © John Ruter, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org
European Smoketree (Cotinus coggygria) - Additional Informations
  1. European Smoketree is a highly adaptive plant, within its natural range of spreading. It can be planted in mountainous or semi-mountainous areas as well as at lower altitudes, even in urban environments with a particularly harsh atmosphere, always in sunny places.
  2. Sometimes, when the minimum temperature reaches its lower endurance limits, the entire overground part of the plant is dead. However, the root collar remains alive, and in the spring a number of lush shoots reappear.
  3. It is not a demanding plant, however, medium pruning helps to create a more compact form, meaning increasing the aesthetic effect, especially in this autumn period. Also, in relation to watering, young plants need regular irrigation, but as they established and become adult, they are progressively exceptionally resistant to drought. From the point of view of longevity, the lifetime of European Smoketree is about 50 years.
  4. From pests and diseases, European Smoketree does not face serious problems. Sometimes leaf spot, rust and verticillium wilt can infest the plant, but they are treated with the appropriate formulations.
  5. European Smoketree is propagated asexual by cuttings, rootball splitting or by tissue culture and sexual by seed. Seed propagation is a time consuming process, while tissue culture is not economically advantageous.

European Smoketree (Cotinus coggygria)

Old Bush Trunks of Cotinus coggygria - © T. Davis Sydnor, The Ohio State University, Bugwood.org
Old Bush Trunks of Cotinus coggygria - © T. Davis Sydnor, The Ohio State University, Bugwood.org

European Smoketree (Cotinus coggygria) - Ethobotanical Use and Varieties

  1. European Smoketree is of interest from both pharmaceutical and ethnobotany point of view. In traditional Serbian medicine, a decoctionof bark is used to treat cancer. Extract is used as a cholagogue febrifuge and for eye ailments. In traditional Chinese medicine, dried leaves and twigs are used as antipyretics. Still, an interesting aspect of the traditional use of European Smoketree is its exploitation as a dye plant. Indeed, the roots and the heart of the plant wood contain a yellow dye, which is used for the dyeing of leather and cloth.
  2. Various varieties of the plant have been created, offering a remarkable color range of leaves and flowering. Some of the most important are:
  • Cotinus coggygria ‘Royal Purrple’
  • Cotinus coggygria ‘Daydream’
  • Cotinus coggygria ‘Grace’
  • Cotinus coggygria ‘Flame’
  • Cotinus coggygria ‘Golden Spirit’
  • Cotinus coggygria ‘Golden Lady’
  1. Smoketree – the name – and its purple autumn leaves make the connection look inevitable: ‘Smoke on the water’ from the baroque rock music ensemble Deep Purrple. More Purrple, can not be.
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